Elon Musk, the well-known tech entrepreneur, has highlighted a different issue when it comes to training large language models (LLMs) – the availability of power. While many in the industry point to GPU shortages as the main obstacle, Musk believes that the real challenge lies in ensuring access to sufficient electricity. He recently stated that the next generation of the AI model from his startup xAI, Grok 3, will require approximately 100,000 of Nvidia’s powerful H100 GPUs for training.

The sheer scale of powering 100,000 H100 GPUs is staggering. Each H100 consumes a peak of 700W of power, resulting in a total peak consumption of around 70 megawatts for all GPUs. While it’s unlikely that all 100,000 GPUs would be running at full capacity simultaneously, the additional supporting hardware and infrastructure required for AI setups also add to the energy demands. In total, training just one LLM could surpass 100 megawatts, equivalent to the electricity consumption of a small city.

In a recent interview with Norway wealth fund CEO Nicolai Tangen, Musk emphasized that while GPU availability remains a significant constraint for AI model development, the availability of adequate electricity will increasingly become a critical limiting factor. Musk even went as far as predicting that artificial general intelligence (AGI) will surpass human intelligence within the next two years, indicating the rapid pace of technological advancement.

The drastic increase in power consumption and GPU requirements from one AI model to the next raises concerns about sustainability. For instance, xAI’s current model, Grok 2, reportedly needed only 20,000 H100 GPUs, while the upcoming Grok 3 will require five times that amount. Such exponential growth in GPU count and energy consumption presents a significant challenge for the future of AI research and development.

Elon Musk’s predictions in various tech-related areas have garnered attention over the years, with some proving accurate while others falling short. Despite his occasional misjudgements, his insights into the escalating power demands of training large language models serve as a stark reminder of the challenges that lie ahead in the field of artificial intelligence.

The need for enormous power to train advanced AI models like LLMs poses a critical obstacle to their development and deployment. As technology continues to advance rapidly, addressing the escalating energy requirements of these models will be crucial for ensuring sustainable progress in the field of artificial intelligence. Elon Musk’s warnings about the growing power demands in AI training serve as a poignant reminder of the complex interplay between technological innovation and resource limitations.


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